Have you ever heard of punching machines? A punching machine is used to drill and shape sheets of different materials through a punch and a die. The punching machines can be simple, formed by a single set of tools, or more complex, automatic with multiple devices. The punching system is an automated mechanical operation. Through special tools called punches, making holes in sheets, and separating a metal part from another, obtaining a certain figure is possible.
- The punching machine removes pieces of material from a sheet using punches activated by a press.
- Punch, hold or separator, and matrix are needed to make a hole in a sheet. These elements must have the same condition to make the hole in a certain shape and dimensions.
We can differentiate several types of punching machines:
Turret punching machines: this type of machine has a double drum where the punching tools are housed. This tooling consists of a punch holder mounted on the drum’s top turret. The rotating matrix is scaled according to the program in the lower turret to select the necessary tools to make the piece.
Punching machines: this type has a tooling store. The device will pick up and leave the tools in that store. Each warehouse position has a cassette where the punch, the separator, the matrix, and an orientation ring are mounted.
- There are two processes, cutting and punching. The cutting process consists of separating a portion of material along a line defined by one or several elements. The punching consists of completely cutting a closed perimeter figure on a sheet’s surface.
The two models of punching machines described above have a very similar punching cycle:
Turret punching machine: the punching machine will rotate the turret and place the tooling just below the Servo Electric Punching Machines’ hammer. From that moment, the hammer will descend, pushing the punch holder. The presser will contact the sheet, pressing and holding it flat against the matrix. The hammer will continue to lower, compressing the springs of the punch holder and reducing the punch. The punch will initiate the sheet’s penetration producing a small curvature around the cutting edge of the energy and the matrix.
Next, a cutting phase will begin, later becoming a fracture in the sheet, both in the upper and lower part, due to the material’s start. When the previous fractures coincide, the retail corresponding to the hole will be loose from the sheet. The hammer will continue down to its lower limit to facilitate the fall of the scrap. Then the hammer will go up, and the container springs will extract the punch from the sheet while the presser keeps the plate flat.